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«1. Define climate.

a. - the average weather (usually taken over a 30-year time period) for a particular region and time period.
b. Climate is not the same as weather, but rather, it is the pattern of weather for a particular region. (Weather describes the short-term state of the atmosphere.)
c. Climates are often described by amounts of and . A location’s climate is influenced by latitude, proximity to large bodies of water, ocean currents, prevailing winds, vegetative cover, elevation, and mountain ranges.
d. Temperature and precipitation patterns are altered by:

* natural events such as El Niño and eruptions
* human influences including deforestation, urbanization, and the production of gases such as carbon dioxide and methane.

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«2. Understand that global wind circulation is the result of uneven heating, density differences and the Coriolis effect.

a. Within the are six major convection cells (ESRT p.14) located at latitudes between:

* 0° and (one north and one south)
* and 60° (one north and one south)
* 60° and (one north and one south)

b. (low density) air at the equator rises to the top of the troposphere. This creates a band of air pressure, centered on the equator. As the rising air cools to the , clouds and precipitation form. This is why the tropics have so much .
c. At a height of about 14 km, the air begins to move horizontally to the and , away from the equator. Eventually, this cooled air at 30° north and south of the equator, creating two bands of high pressure. The sinking air heats up, creating very dry conditions. Most major are located at these latitudes.
d. When this sinking air reaches the surface, it travels in two directions, towards the or towards 60° latitude. The effect causes these surface winds to curve to the (north of equator) or to the (south of the equator).
e. When (cold and dense) air at the poles reaches the surface, it moves away from the poles, towards latitude, also curving due to the Coriolis effect.
f. At 60° latitude, surface winds from the poles and from 30° latitude converge. They are forced to , creating two more bands of low pressure with wet climates.

«3. Identify convergent and divergent belts and planetary winds using the ESRT (p.14).

a. Zones of exist on the surface at the equator and 60°. Here, the winds are coming together.
b. Zones of exist on the surface at the poles and 30°. Here, the winds are moving apart.
c. Remember:

* North of the equator, surface winds curve to the . If they are blowing north, they will curve . If they are blowing south, they will curve .
* South of the equator, surface winds curve to the . If they are blowing north, they will curve to the . If they are blowing south, they will curve to the .

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«4. Define specific heat and explain the moderating effect of a nearby large body of water.

a. The heats up and cools down much more quickly than .
b. Specific heat- the amount of heat (number of calories) required to raise the temperature of one of substance one degree Celsius (see ESRT p.1).
c. Water (as a liquid) has a higher specific heat than land. This means that it takes more energy to raise the of water. Water heats up .
d. Throughout the year, the temperature of the does not change as much as the temperature of the .
e. Locations near large bodies of usually have cooler and warmer .
f. Locations from large bodies of water are usually hotter during the and colder during the .

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«5. Explain how land breezes, sea breezes and monsoons affect climate.

a. is heated mostly by the surface beneath it. Most Sunlight passes through the air without changing its temperature much.
b. Air over the water will heat up during the day, and cool at night.
c. Air over the land will heat up during the day, and cool during the night.
d. (low density) air rises. (dense) air sinks.
e. - the transfer of heat energy within the atmosphere, the hydrosphere, and Earth’s interior results in the formation of regions of different densities. These density differences result in motion.
f. breeze- a local wind blowing from the sea to the shore. Cooler air from over the sea flows onto the shore to replace the warm air rising over the land. On Sunny days the land heats up more quickly than the sea. The air in contact with the land warms and rises causing . During the day, clouds often form over the land where the warm air is rising and cooling to the .
g. breeze- a local wind blowing from the land to the sea, opposite of a sea breeze. During the night, the sea is warmer than the land. Cooler air from over the land flows out to sea to replace the warm air rising over the water. During the night, clouds often form over the where the warm air is rising and to the dew point.

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h. Monsoons are caused by a seasonal change in direction. Winds usually blow from land to sea in winter, while in the summer this reverses, bringing heavy . During the , the land cools down quickly, causing a large area of high pressure. During the , the land heats up quickly, causing a large area of low pressure. Winds always blow from high to low pressure.
i. Monsoons are most typical in India and southern Asia. For Arizona, the monsoon results in westerly winds shifting to southerly or southeasterly (winds are named by where they come from); this shift brings considerable moisture into the state from the Gulf of California and the Gulf of .

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«6. Understand that density differences, wind and the Coriolis effect cause ocean currents.

a. are basically rivers in the ocean. They move around 4 miles an hour.
b. Surface currents are parts of huge, slowly moving, circular whirls, or gyres (pronounced “jires,” like tires), that begin near the equator in each ocean.
c. Currents moving away from the are warm. Currents moving away from the are cold.
d. is the driving force for the ocean's surface currents. Where wind is in contact with the ocean, it passes energy to the water through and causes the surface layer to move.
e. The most significant factor other than wind that influences the movement of surface ocean currents is the Effect, which causes wind (and therefore ocean currents) to be deflected to the in the Northern Hemisphere and to the in the Southern Hemisphere.
f. Because of the Coriolis Effect, surface currents flow in the Northern Hemisphere and in the Southern Hemisphere.
g. The world's oceans also have significant currents that flow beneath the surface. In contrast to surface currents, deep-ocean circulation is controlled by gravity and driven by differences.
h. Cold water is very , and sinks.
i. Cold, dense water near Antarctica sinks and travels along the towards the equator, where it will eventually (500 to 2000 years) return to the sea surface.
j. Salty water is very , and sinks. Both the evaporation and freezing of sea water leave behind , increasing salinity levels and water density.
k. In the summer the Mediterranean Sea loses more water by than it gets back as rain. The salinity and density of the Mediterranean Sea . As a result, deep currents of dense water flow along the sea bottom from the Mediterranean into the Ocean. At the same time, the less salty water of the Atlantic Ocean flows into the Mediterranean at the water's .

«7. Explain the climate affects of warm/cold currents (El Niño, Gulf Stream).

a. Ocean are important in navigation and travel and for the effect that they have on climates.
b. currents, like the Labrador, California, and Falkland Currents, decrease air temperatures of nearby land and cause increased fog.
c. currents, like the Gulf Stream, the North Atlantic, and the Kuroshio Current, warm the climates of nearby land.
d. El Niño- The term El Niño refers to a warm ocean current that typically appears around late and lasts for several months, but may persist into May or June.
e. Starting up an El Niño event: The western Ocean warms and cools in cycles. Normally, east-to-west winds pile up warm water in the western Pacific, while cold water from deep in the ocean to the surface along the South American Coast. Every few years, the trade winds change, allowing the pool of warm water to move to the east where it blocks the rising cold water. These changes help trigger the global weather changes associated with El Niño. A strong El Niño has very noticeable effects on the USA's weather, which can range from a stormy winter along the West Coast, a wet winter across the South, and a warmer-than winter for parts of the North.
f. La Niña- condition opposite of an El Niño. In a La Niña, the tropical Pacific trade winds become very strong and an abnormal accumulation of cold water occurs in the central and eastern Ocean. During a La Niña year, winter temperatures are warmer than normal in the Southeast and cooler than normal in the Northwest.
g. El Niño and La Niña events tend to alternate about every three to seven years. However, the time from one event to the next can vary from one to ten years.

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«8. Compare/contrast climate changes with altitude and latitude.

a. Places at latitudes (near the equator) are warm due to the high angle of (incoming solar radiation).
b. Places at latitudes (near the poles) are cold due to the low angle of .
c. Locations at high altitudes are . Quito, Ecuador, is a city near the equator. It has a very cool climate because it is located high in the Mountains.
d. Locations at low altitudes are . Death Valley, California, and the Dead Sea, between Israel and Jordan, are extremely and dry since they are both below level.

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«9. Explain the differences between windward and leeward climate.

a. The side of a mountain is the side that the wind is blowing against.
b. The side of a mountain is the side facing away from the wind, opposite from the windward side.
c. When wind blows towards mountains, such as the Washington Cascades, it is forced to .
d. When the rising air expands and cools, occurs, and it rains on locations situated on the windward slopes, like Seattle, Washington.
e. When the wind blows down the side of the mountain, like at Spokane, Washington, it is compressed, warming and drying it out.
f. This sinking, contracting, dry air produces a shadow, or area in the leeward of a mountain with less rain and cloud cover.

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«10. Define insolation and explain how its intensity and duration affects temperature.

a. - “IN”-coming “SOL”-ar radi-“ATION”
b. The the Sun is in the sky, the stronger (more intense) the sunlight is.
c. Places near the receive the most intense insolation.
d. At places near the , the Sun never rises high in the sky, so the sunlight is always weak. The Polar Regions receive the least intense insolation.
e. During the months, the duration, angle, and intensity of insolation are greatest.
f. Day= ; = cold (no insolation)
g. Summer= ; = cold

«11. Compare/contrast conduction, convection and radiation.

a. - the transfer of heat from one substance to another by direct contact (touching); the transfer is always from to substances.
b. - the transfer of heat in a fluid (such as air, water, or magma), where a warm current rises into a cool area, and a cool current descends to take its place. Convection is driven by -- warm fluids are usually lighter than denser cold fluids, and gravity drags the densest material to the bottom.
c. - the transfer of energy in the form of waves (radio, microwave, infrared (heat), visible or ultraviolet, x rays or gamma rays) that can travel through the vacuum of empty space, or through anything that is (air, glass, water, etc.).
d. The transfer of heat energy within the atmosphere, the hydrosphere, and Earth’s surface occurs as the result of , , and .
e. Heating of Earth’s surface and atmosphere by the drives convection within the atmosphere and oceans, producing winds and ocean currents.

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«12. Explain why cloudy days are cool and cloudy nights are warm.

a. block the Sunlight. Much of the solar radiation hitting the cloud is back to space. When this happens, less solar radiation reaches the Earth. This makes the Earth cooler than expected. When the daily high temperature is lower than forecasted, unexpected low thick clouds may have been the result.
b. skies allow more solar radiation to reach the surface. This is why desert climates are so hot during the day. The lack of moisture results in the lack of clouds.
c. On a cloudy night, the clouds will most of the infrared radiation that the surface is attempting to back into space. They will then radiate a significant amount of this energy back to the surface. The heat is trapped in the lower atmosphere, making it .
d. On nights there are few clouds to absorb and reradiate radiation back to the surface. Infrared energy ( ) escapes very quickly from the atmosphere with the lack of cloud cover resulting in a cool night. (This is why desert nights are often very cold.)

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«13. Compare/ contrast surfaces that absorb or reflect insolation.

a. Dark and rough surfaces are excellent of insolation.
b. Light and smooth surfaces more Sunlight.
c. Clouds and snow can much Sunlight.
d. Albedo- the amount of light from a surface.

«14. Understand that good absorbers are good radiators.

a. Anything that heats up quickly cools down .
b. Anything that heats up slowly cools down .


«15. Interpret the electromagnetic spectrum in the ESRT (p.14).

a. - the entire range of wavelengths of electromagnetic radiation extending from short gamma rays to the longest radio waves and including visible light.
b. - the distance between two crests (high points) or troughs (low points) of a wave.
c. Short = High energy = Dangerous
d. All forms of electromagnetic energy radiate at the same speed, the speed of : 300,000 km/s (186,000 miles per second). At the speed of light, an object could travel around the Earth almost eight times in one .
e. Types of electromagnetic energy:

* rays- a form of electromagnetic radiation with a large amount of energy. They have a large penetrating and destructive power.
* rays- wavelengths between ultraviolet and gamma rays; X-radiation can go through human skin tissue but is stopped by dense . This property makes X-rays valuable in medicine.
* - a wavelength just too small to see; light that is so blue humans can’t see it; A band of the electromagnetic spectrum between the visible and the X-ray; known to damage eyes and cause skin .
* Visible light- visible light is the most intense form of energy radiated by the . It is electromagnetic radiation at wavelengths that the human can see. We perceive this radiation as . The Sun emits most of its radiation as visible light, which is probably why our eyes can see it. From longest to shortest: , orange, , green, , indigo, violet (ROY G. BIV)
* - heat energy; a wavelength just too to see; light that is so red humans can’t see it; a band of the electromagnetic spectrum between the visible and the microwave.
* - wavelength between radio waves and infrared radiation; very short radio waves. A microwave oven uses microwaves to heat food. They are absorbed by water, fats and sugars, and converted directly into atomic motion – high temperatures.
* waves- longest wavelength (lowest energy) electromagnetic radiation; used on Earth to communicate over large distances.


«16. List the greenhouse gases and explain their affect on global warming.

a. Some gases occur naturally in the atmosphere, while others result from human activities.
b. Naturally occurring greenhouse gases include vapor, dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and ozone.
c. Certain activities, however, add to the levels of most of these naturally occurring gases:

* Carbon dioxide is released to the atmosphere when solid waste, fossil fuels (oil, natural gas, and coal), and wood and wood products are .
* Methane is emitted during the production and transport of coal, natural , and oil. Methane emissions also result from the decomposition of organic wastes in municipal solid waste landfills, and the raising of .
* Nitrous is emitted during agricultural and industrial activities, as well as during combustion of solid waste and fossil fuels.
* Very powerful greenhouse gases that are not naturally occurring include hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs), and sulfur hexafluoride (SF6), which are generated in a variety of industrial processes.

d. Each greenhouse gas differs in its ability to absorb in the atmosphere. HFCs and PFCs are the most heat-absorbent. Methane traps over 21 times more heat per molecule than carbon , and oxide absorbs 270 times more heat per molecule than dioxide.

«17. Understand the greenhouse affect of the absorption, conversion and reflection of insolation.

a. The solar energy, primarily in the form of the wavelengths (visible light), which penetrates through the atmosphere, is ultimately absorbed at Earth's surface.
b. Earth releases the absorbed radiation ( ) in the form of long-wave radiation ( radiation).
c. The atmospheric absorption of this long-wave terrestrial radiation by greenhouse gases (primarily by water vapor and carbon dioxide) is responsible for the atmosphere.
d. This very important phenomenon has been termed the effect.

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