Sick of green?

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«1. Explain how outgassing formed the Earth’s original atmosphere and how it evolved through time.

a. Earth's primitive probably consisted of such gases as water vapor, carbon dioxide, nitrogen, and several trace gases that were released in volcanic emissions, a process called .
b. The first life forms on Earth, probably anaerobic bacteria, did not require .
c. As life evolved, plants, through the process of , used carbon dioxide and water and released into the atmosphere.
d. Once the available iron on Earth was (combined with oxygen), substantial quantities of oxygen accumulated in the atmosphere.
e. About 4 billion years into Earth's existence, the fossil record reveals abundant ocean-dwelling organisms that require to live.

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«2. Describe the various temperature zones of the atmosphere and be able to interpret the ESRT chart/graph on the atmosphere.

a. is the state of the atmosphere at a particular place for a short period of time.
b. , on the other hand, is a generalization of the weather conditions of a place over a long period of time.
c. The most important elements, those quantities or properties that are measured regularly, of weather and climate are 1) air , 2) humidity, 3) type and amount of cloudiness, 4) type and amount of , 5) air pressure, and 6) the speed and direction of the .
d. If water vapor, dust, ozone, and other variable components of the atmosphere were removed, clean, dry air would be composed almost entirely of (N2), about 78% of the atmosphere by volume, and oxygen (O2), about 21%.
e. (CO2), although present in minute amounts (0.036%), is important because it has the ability to absorb heat radiated by Earth, thus aiding atmospheric warming.
f. Among the variable components of air, vapor is very important because it is the source of all clouds and precipitation and, like carbon dioxide, it is also a heat absorber.

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g. (O3), the triatomic form of oxygen, is concentrated in the 10- to 50-kilometer altitude range ( ) of the atmosphere, and is important to life because of its ability to absorb potentially harmful radiation from the Sun.

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h. Because the atmosphere gradually thins with increasing altitude, it has no sharp upper boundary but simply blends into outer .
i. Based on , the atmosphere is divided vertically into four layers.
j. The troposphere is the lowermost layer. In the troposphere, temperature usually with increasing altitude. The rate is variable, but averages about 6.5°C per kilometer (3.5°F per 1000 feet). Essentially all important weather phenomena occur in the troposphere.
k. Above the troposphere is the , which exhibits warming because of absorption of radiation by ozone.
l. In the , temperatures again decrease.
m. Upward from the mesosphere is the , a layer with only a minute fraction of the atmosphere's mass and no well-defined upper limit.
n. The boundaries or zones of transition between the layers are the , , and mesopause.
o. You should be able to determine the altitude, temperature, atmospheric pressure, and water vapor concentration within the layers of the atmosphere (ESRT p. 14).

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«3. Understand and interpret the various temperature scales using the ESRT (p.13).

a. Fahrenheit (°F)- A temperature scale on which water at 32°F and water at 212°F at sea level; °F = (°C x 1.8) + 32
b. Celsius (°C)- A temperature scale having the point of pure water at 0°C and the boiling point at at sea level; °C = (°F - 32) ÷ 1.8
c. (K)- A temperature scale used in science to measure extremely cold temperatures. The Kelvin temperature scale is just like the Celsius scale except that the freezing point of water, zero degrees Celsius, is equal to 273 K. zero, the coldest known temperature, is reached at 0 K. There is no degree (°) symbol used with the Kelvin scale. K = °C + 273

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«4. Understand that the Sun is the Earth’s main energy source.

a. Radiation from the is the chief source of energy for the atmosphere.
b. When energy from the Sun reaches Earth’s , the energy is absorbed, heating the surface.
c. The Earth’s surface then the energy into the atmosphere, heating it.
d. The general in temperature with increasing altitude in the troposphere supports the fact that the atmosphere is heated from the ground up.

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«5. Understand how a barometer measures air pressure.

a. pressure is the pressure exerted by the atmosphere (weight of the atmosphere) at a given point. Its measurement can be expressed in (mb), or in inches of . Also known as atmospheric pressure.
b. A is an instrument used to measure atmospheric pressure.
c. A standard mercury barometer has a glass column about 30 inches long, closed at one end, with a mercury-filled reservoir. Mercury in the tube adjusts until the weight of the mercury column balances the atmospheric force exerted on the reservoir. High atmospheric pressure forces the mercury in the column. Low pressure allows the mercury to drop to a level in the column.
d. An aneroid barometer uses a small, flexible metal box called an aneroid cell. The box is tightly sealed after some of the air is removed, so that small changes in external air pressure cause the cell to expand or .
e. Decreasing air pressure often brings warm and unsettled or rainy weather. The movement of pressure into an area can be associated with overcast skies and possible precipitation.
f. If pressure is , the weather is clearing up.

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«6. Describe how temperature, humidity and altitude affect air pressure.

a. As air cools down, it . The air molecules move closer together, and the air becomes denser. Therefore, cooler air is heavier and causes higher air pressure. COLD AIR .
b. As air heats up, it expands. The air molecules move farther apart, and the air becomes less . Therefore, warmer air is lighter and causes air pressure. WARM AIR .
c. Since moist air is less (lighter) than dry air, an increase in humidity generally results in lower air pressure. (A water molecule has an atomic mass of 18. An air molecule has an atomic mass of approximately 28. When a water molecule replaces an air molecule, the air becomes .)
d. As you move higher into the atmosphere, air pressure . Although the weight of the air pulls it down, the pressure of the atmosphere is exerted in all .

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«7. Explain the relationship between uneven heating, density differences and convection.

a. and rough surfaces are excellent absorbers of energy, and heat up more quickly than lighter, smoother surfaces that sunlight.

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b. The land heats up and cools down much more quickly than .
c. - the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of one gram of substance one degree Celsius (see ESRT p.1). A is a unit of heat energy. To raise the temperature of one gram of water one degree Celsius, one calorie of heat must be added to the water. The unit for specific heat is ( ). Water gains energy during (+80 calories/gram) and (+540 calories/gram), and releases energy during (-80 calories/gram) and (-540 calories/gram).
d. (as a liquid) has a higher specific heat than land. This means that it takes more energy to raise the of water. Water heats up .

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e. is heated mostly by the surface beneath it. Most sunlight passes through the without changing its temperature much.
f. Air over the will heat up faster during the day, and cool faster during the night.
g. Air over the will heat up slowly during the day, and cool slowly at night.
h. Warm (lower ) air rises. Cool (higher ) air sinks. This is due to the difference in their densities. Oil floats on water since oil is less dense.
i. - the transfer of heat through a liquid or gas by the actual movement of the liquid or gas; updrafts ( air rising) and downdrafts ( air sinking) occur due to convection in an unstable atmosphere.

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«8. Explain that winds blow from high to low pressure and how the Earth’s rotation/coriolis effect affects the motion of winds.

a. is the horizontal movement of air over Earth’s surface.
b. are named by where they are coming from.
c. If you poke a hole in a new bottle of soda, the soda squirts out of the bottle, from an area of pressure (inside) to an area of pressure (outside). Once the pressure inside the bottle is equal to the pressure outside the bottle, the soda stops squirting.
d. If a window in a high-flying airplane is broken, air rushes out of the airplane, from an area of pressure (inside) to an area of pressure (outside).
e. always blows from regions of higher pressure to regions of lower pressure. “Winds from high to low.”
f. Effect- the effect of the Earth's rotation on the atmosphere and on all objects on the Earth's surface including bodies of water. In the northern hemisphere it causes moving objects and currents to be deflected to the ; in the southern hemisphere it causes deflection to the .
g. Example- Imagine a spinning disk (like a CD or DVD). If you scratched a line from the center to the edge while the disk was spinning, the resulting line would be .
h. Example- A missile is launched from the North Pole. As it heads south, the Earth turns to the east, causing the missile to appear to deflect to the as viewed by an Earthbound observer.

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«9. Explain how pressure gradient affects wind speed.

a. Pressure - the change in atmospheric pressure between two points. The greater the change (the larger the difference) in pressure between these two points, the stronger the pressure gradient and the stronger the .
b. Strong pressure gradient: If city A has very high pressure, and city B has very low pressure, the wind will blow very from city A to city B.
c. Weak (gentle) pressure gradient: If the air pressure at city A is just a little greater than the air pressure at city B, the wind will blow from city A to city B .

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«10. Explain the function of an anemometer and a wind vane.

a. - An instrument used to measure wind speed. An anemometer usually has four cups placed at the ends of two intersecting rods. As the wind blows, the cups catch the wind and cause the cups to . The faster the wind is blowing, the greater the spinning of the anemometer. Wind speed is measured in miles per hour and (nautical miles per hour). One knot equals mi/hr (ESRT p.13).
b. - an instrument that determines the direction from which a wind is blowing. The part of the vane that turns into the wind is usually shaped like an arrow. The other end is wide so it will catch the smallest breeze. The breeze turns the arrow until it catches both sides of the wide end equally. The arrow always points into the wind. The arrow tells you the from which the wind is coming.

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«11. Explain how evaporating water affects humidity.

a. - liquid changes to gas
b. - gas changes to liquid
c. - solid changes to liquid
d. - liquid changes to solid
e. Sublimation- solid changes directly to
f. Deposition (or sublimation)- gas changes directly to

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g. Humidity is the general term used to describe the amount of water in the air.
h. humidity- how “full” the air is with water vapor; the ratio (expressed as a percent) of the air's water vapor content to its water vapor capacity at a given temperature; the most familiar term used to describe humidity.
i. The water vapor (how much it can hold) of air depends on temperature, with warm air having a much capacity than cold air. Antarctica is the biggest desert because the air is so cold, and therefore, so dry. If the air is hot, like daytime in the Sahara Desert, it CAN hold a lot of , but may not be holding much at all.
j. Relative humidity can be changed in two ways. One is by adding ( ) or subtracting ( ) water vapor to or from the air.
k. The second is by changing the air's . When air is cooled, its relative humidity . Cooling air often leads to condensation, which creates clouds and fog. This is why air conditioners drip. Heating air has the effect. When air is heated, relative humidity . This is why the air can get so dry indoors during the winter.
l. Air is said to be when it contains the maximum quantity of water vapor that it can hold at any given temperature and pressure. When air is saturated, relative humidity is %.
m. is the temperature to which air would have to be cooled in order to reach saturation (100% relative humidity).

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«12. Use a sling psychrometer and the ESRT to determine relative humidity and dewpoint.

a. Sling - an instrument used to measure the water vapor content of the atmosphere, in which wet and dry bulb thermometers are mounted on a frame connected to a handle at one end. The psychrometer is whirled by hand to provide the necessary ventilation to water from the wet bulb.
b. bulb- a normal thermometer that measures air temperature.
c. bulb- a thermometer, with the thermometer bulb wrapped in cloth, which is kept wet. The evaporation of water from the thermometer has a cooling effect, so the temperature indicated by the wet bulb thermometer is than the temperature indicated by a dry-bulb thermometer.
d. The rate of from the wet-bulb thermometer depends on the humidity of the air - evaporation is when the air is already full of water vapor. For this reason, the difference in the temperatures indicated by the two thermometers gives a measure of atmospheric humidity.
e. If the air is completely with water vapor (100% relative humidity), no water will evaporate from the wet-bulb, and the two temperatures (wet- and dry- bulb) will be the .
f. Don’t ignore the word “ ” on the charts on page 12 in the ESRT! These charts can be used to determine relative humidity and dewpoint. To use the charts, find the on top, and the dry-bulb temperature on the left. Go down from the difference and across from the dry-bulb temperature to where the column meets the row. There should be ONE number where they meet.

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«13. Explain the factors cloud formation.

a. For condensation to occur, air must be .
b. Saturation takes place either when air is cooled to its , which most commonly happens, or when water vapor is added to the air.
c. There must also be a surface on which the water vapor may condense. In cloud and fog formation, tiny particles called (microscopic particles of dust, smoke or salt) serve this purpose.
d. The of air as it rises and expands is the basic cloud-forming process.
e. If air rises high enough, it will cool sufficiently to cause condensation and form a .
f. The condensing water vapor releases , thereby reducing the rate at which the air cools.
g. Four ways that clouds can form from rising air:

* Orographic lifting- occurs when elevated terrains, such as , act as barriers to the flow of air. As air blows up the side of a mountain, it cools, reaching the dewpoint and forming clouds.
* Frontal wedging- when cool air acts as a barrier over which , less dense air rises. A warm air mass always rises up and over a cooler air mass. The warm air cools and reaches the dewpoint, forming clouds.
* Convergence- when air flows together and a general upward movement of air occurs. The rising air cools to the , forming clouds.
* Convection- when unequal surface heating causes localized pockets of air to rise. The rising air cools to the dewpoint, forming .

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«14. Explain how precipitation occurs.

a. For precipitation to form, millions of droplets must somehow join together (coalesce) into large drops.
b. In clouds where the temperatures are below freezing, ice crystals form and fall as . At lower altitudes the snowflakes and become raindrops before they reach the ground.
c. Large droplets form in warm clouds that contain large nuclei, such as salt particles. As these big droplets descend, they collide and join with smaller water droplets. After many collisions the droplets are large enough to fall to the ground as .
d. Precipitation cleans the by bringing down condensation nuclei and other suspended material.
e. Precipitation gauge- an instrument used to measure the amount of that has fallen. Measurement is often done in hundredths of inches (0.01").
f. - Precipitation in the form of liquid water droplets greater than 0.5 mm.
g. Drizzle- Small, slowly falling water droplets, with diameters than 0.5 mm.
h. - precipitation falling from clouds in the form of ice crystals. A snowflake forms first as a very tiny crystal, that grows to become a larger -sided hexagonal crystal.
i. Sleet- Raindrops that freeze into ice pellets before reaching the ground. It forms when snow enters a layer of air above the surface and melts and then enters a deep layer of sub-freezing air near the surface and refreezes.
j. Hail- falling ice in roughly round shapes. Hail comes from thunderstorms and is larger than sleet. Hailstones form when upward moving air (updrafts) in a thunderstorm keeps pieces of ice from falling. Drops of supercooled water hit and freeze to the falling ice, causing it to . If the currents are strong enough, a hailstone will fall and rise many times, causing several of ice to build up until the hailstone is heavy enough to fall from the cloud.

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«15. Compare and contrast the formation of clouds, fog, dew and frost.

a. - a visible group of tiny water and/or ice particles in the atmosphere.
b. - a cloud on the ground. is composed of billions of tiny water droplets floating in the air.
c. - air pollution by a mixture of smoke and fog.
d. - condensation in the form of small water drops that forms on grass and other small objects near the ground when the temperature has fallen to the dewpoint, generally during the nighttime hours.
e. - Deposits of white ice crystals or frozen dew drops on objects on or near the ground. Formed when the surface temperature falls below freezing (0°C).

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«16. Construct and interpret isotherms, isobars and station models.

a. Weather map- a map showing the at a given time in a region.
b. Weather - a location where meteorological observations are measured.
c. Station - the listing of many different weather observations around the location of a weather station on a weather map (see ESRT p.13).

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d. - a line on a map connecting points with equal value or common characteristics (e.g., rainfall intensity, temperature, barometric pressure, etc.).
e. Isotherm- an isoline connecting points of equal air on a weather map.
f. Isobar- an isoline connecting points of equal air on a weather map.
g. Weather variables can be represented in a variety of formats including radar and satellite images, weather maps (including station models, isobars, and fronts), atmospheric cross-sections, and computer models.

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