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«1. Identify the characteristics of matter.

a. Measurements have a and a .
b. is anything that has mass and volume.
c. Weight is a measure of the pull of .
d. Length- 1m= cm; 1cm= mm (see ESRT p.1)
e. Mass (g) is the amount of in an object.
f. Volume (mL or cm3) is the amount of an object takes up.
g. (g/mL or g/cm3) is the amount of mass in a specific volume of a substance (D= … see ESRT p.1)
h. Usually, heating a substance makes it less , and cooling it makes it denser.
i. Increasing the on a substance makes it denser, and decreasing the pressure makes it less dense.
j. Breaking a pure substance into smaller pieces change its density.
k. Most substances are most dense as .
l. Water is most dense as a . At 3.98°C, the density of water is exactly (see ESRT p.1). Ice is dense than liquid water.
m. Any measurement must contain some (% Deviation… see formula in ESRT p.1)

«2. Explain the importance of chemical bonds.

a. The determines what a substance is like. Salt is because of the shape of its molecules.
b. Diamonds and graphite are both made of . In a diamond, the carbon atoms have bonds.
c. Solids, liquids and gases differ due to the that the atoms are vibrating (temperature) and the of the bonds.

«3. Identify the characteristics of minerals.

a. - not man-made
b. - not alive, not from something alive, not once alive
c. - not liquid, not gas
d. Definite (ex/halite=NaCl; galena=PbS)
e. Orderly arrangement (crystalline)

«4. Explain how minerals form.

a. Magma is a “soup” of (melted) minerals under ground. Above ground, it is called .
b. As magma cools, some minerals (solidify) before others. This allows different minerals to form from each other.

«5. List the physical characteristics of minerals that are influenced by their crystalline structure.

a. Color
b. - color of mineral as a powder
c. - how a mineral’s surface reflects light (metallic or nonmetallic)
d. - Diamonds are hardest (10), talc is softest (1)
e. Density
f. - when a mineral breaks irregularly.
g. - the way a mineral breaks along planes of weakness creating flat surfaces
h. form
i. Others- bubbles with , magnetism, taste

«6. Identify rock-forming minerals by physical and chemical properties- see your Earth Science Reference Tables (p.16).

«7. List and describe different categories of minerals: silicates & carbonates.

a. - the most common mineral group; contain Si and O; ex/ quartz, feldspar, mica
b. - contain CaCO3; ex/ calcite, dolomite
c. - metal combines with oxygen; ex/ hematite, magnetite
d. Sulfides- metal combines with ; ex/ pyrite

«8. Compare renewable & nonrenewable resources.

a. Chemical composition and physical properties determine how use minerals.
b. The of rocks determine how they are used and also influence land usage by humans.
c. resource- a resource that can be replaced in nature at a rate close to its rate of use (oxygen, trees, food, solar energy).
d. resource- a resource that is used up faster than it can be replaced in nature (iron, aluminum, sand, coal, oil, natural gas, uranium).

«9. Determine the densities of known materials.

a. Mass- triple
b. Mass of a liquid- find mass of container , find mass of container with fluid, mass of container.
c. Volume of a regular object- V =
d. Volume of an irregular object- graduated cylinder ( of water)
e. Volume of a liquid- pour it into a .
f. D=

«10. Compare/contrast the density of continental/oceanic rock

a. Continental crust (more aluminum - )= g/cm3 (granitic; mostly composed of granite-like igneous rocks)
b. Oceanic crust (more iron and magnesium - )= g/cm3 (basaltic; mostly composed of basalt-like igneous rocks)

«11. Explain the difference between a mineral and a rock.

a. Minerals are the “building blocks of .”
b. Rocks are mixtures of minerals. Rocks are usually made of one or more .

«12. Differentiate among the three major types of rocks.

a. Rocks are classified on the basis of their : igneous, sedimentary or metamorphic.
b. rocks form by the crystallization of molten magma or lava.
c. Most rocks form as a result of the compression and cementing of sediments under bodies of water.
d. rocks form as a result of crystal growth without melting ( ), usually under conditions of high temperature and pressure.

«13. Distinguish between intrusive and extrusive igneous rocks and how they form.

a. Intrusive rocks have (1mm or larger) intergrown crystals. Ex/ granite, dunite, gabbro, pegmatite
b. Extrusive rocks have (less than 1mm) intergrown crystals or none at all (glassy). Some cooled so quickly that got trapped within them (vesicular). Ex/ pumice, obsidian, basalt, scoria

«14. Explain the relationship between crystal size and cooling time.

a. Intrusive rocks form when cools beneath Earth’s surface, allowing enough for crystals to grow. Ex/ granite, dunite, gabbro, pegmatite
b. Extrusive rocks form when cools above Earth’s surface, not allowing enough for crystals to grow. Ex/ pumice, obsidian, basalt, scoria

«15. Understand “interlocking” crystals- There is no cement or matrix holding the individual minerals crystals together. They are intergrown. Each crystal is another crystal, with nothing between them. Interlocking crystals are found in igneous rocks.

«16. Distinguish among the types of sedimentary rocks and how they form.

a. Inorganic land-derived sedimentary rocks are (made of fragments of other rocks cemented together).
b. Chemically formed sedimentary rocks are crystalline and usually form when water , leaving dissolved minerals behind.
c. Organically formed sedimentary rocks ( ) are the result of living things. is made of plant remains. is made of cemented seashells.

«17. Discuss features typical of sedimentary rocks.

a. Inorganic land-derived sedimentary rocks are named by . Ex/ is made of clay-sized particles cemented together. is made of sand sized particles cemented together. are made of a mixture of different particle sizes cemented together.
b. Limestone has cemented together.
c. are found only in sedimentary rocks.

«18. Explain the processes involved in the formation of metamorphic rocks.

a. Metamorphism results in the rearrangement of atoms in existing minerals subjected to conditions of high and .
b. metamorphism occurs when molten rock comes in contact with surrounding rocks. Transition zones from altered to rocks can be identified.
c. metamorphism occurs over large areas, and is generally associated with building. The extreme pressures associated with the of tectonic plates (mountain building) can lead to the metamorphism of rock material.

«19. Differentiate among different kinds of metamorphic rocks.

a. Add pressure to clay (sediments), and (a sedimentary rock) forms. Add pressure to , and slate forms. Add pressure to slate, and forms. Add pressure to , and schist forms. Add pressure to schist, and forms. These are the events that turn a low-grade metamorphic rock into a -grade metamorphic rock.
b. Metamorphic rocks often show or mineral (foliations).
c. Metamorphic rocks often have structures.

«20. Learn how to use the ESRT chart for mineral and rock identification- See pages 6, 7 and 16.

«21. Compare/contrast the processes in the rock cycle. (Use ESRT p.6)

a. Any one type of can be changed into any other type of rock.
b. Many processes of the rock are the result of plate motions.
c. When one plate dives beneath another, it . This leads to igneous rock formation and contact metamorphism.
d. When plates , regional metamorphism occurs due to the great pressures exerted on large areas.
e. Down-warping of the leads to the creation of major depositional basins.